Tuesday, May 26, 2020

A Midsummer Nights Dream - A Feminist Perspective Essay

A Feminist Perspective of A Midsummer Nights Dream At age fifteen, my hormones went wild and I threw myself at every boy in the neighborhood. Although I didn’t go all the way, I offered as much flesh as I dared. If the suburbs can create such sexual angst, imagine the lust stirred by moonlight, fairies, and a warm midsummer night. In Shakespeares comedy A Midsummer Nights Dream, Helena represents the frenzy of young love when fueled by rejection and driven to masochistic extremes. As the lovers sink deeper into the fantasy world of starlit woods, the Greek virtue of moderation disappears. Emotions intensify to a melodramatic pitch. Helena, in particular, plunges to a primitive and desperate level of passion.†¦show more content†¦The anquish of unreturned love seems worse than a physical blow. With self esteem shattered, Helena will accept any affirmation of her existence in the shadow of vibrant Hermia. Lynn Chancer explains the psychological dynamic: the masochist keeps searching, hoping, pursuing, looking outward toward the sadist for the approval and recognition she or he would dearly love to feel from within (Chancer 66). Without a strong ego, Helena accepts any response from Demetrius and clings to his expressed hatred. Helena cries, Use me but as your Spaniel, spurn me, strike me,/ Neglect me, lose me; only give me leave,/ Unworthy as I am, to follow you (II. i. 205-6). Helena offers herself as household pet and whipping post. She exchanges dignity for the chance to trot after Demetrius like an eager puppy. Her proposal comes strikingly close to modern sado-masochistic pornography. Sexologist G.W. Levi Kamel describes the SM game of kennel discipline with submissives licking the masters boots, being led around on a leash, wearing a dog collar, and even being forced to eat from a dog bowl ... (Kamel 165). Already reduced to chasing her loved one through the forest, Helenas romantic aspirations become distorted: What worser place can I beg in your love  ­/ And yet a place of high respect with me  ­/ Than to be usà ©d as you use your dog? (II. i. 208-210). Helenas desire to be a domesticated animal contrasts with Bottoms transformation into an ass. AlthoughShow MoreRelated A Midsummer Night’s Dream - The Feminist Subtext Essay1905 Words   |  8 PagesThe Feminist Subtext of A Midsummer Nights Dream    Shakespeares works have persistently influenced humanity for the past four hundred years. Quotations from his plays are used in many other works of literature and some common phrases have even become integrated into the English language. Most high schoolers have been unsuccessful in avoidance of him and college students are rarely afforded the luxury of choice when it comes to studying the bard. Many aspects of Shakespeares works have beenRead MoreMeg 1,2,3,4 Ignou1582 Words   |  7 Pages MBG.O2: BRITISH DRAMA ASSIGNMENT (Based on Blocks 1-9) Programme Code: MEG Assignment Code: MEG-02/TMN20L2-2013 Maximum Marks: 100 1. 2. 3. Discuss Dr. Faustu,s as a tragedy (10) (10) (10) (10) (10) (10) (10) (10) In what ways is A Midsummer Nights Dream a Shakespeareancomedy? Comment on the role of the ghost in Hamlet. 4. Would you consider Alchemist an allegory? 5. Write down the plot of the Playboy. 6. How is Pygmalion a Shavian play? 7. Comment on the uniqueness of Murder in the CathedralRead MoreThe Theme Of Homo Eroticism Within The Play As You Like It And How It Differs From Various Other3688 Words   |  15 Pagesbuilds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies close examination of the socially acknowledged nature of sexual acts and identities. Whereas gay/lesbian studies focused its inquiries into natural and unnatural behaviour with respect to homosexual behaviour, queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into normative and deviant categories. Italian feminist and film theoristRead MoreGender Roles in Shakespeare1834 Words   |  8 Pagesof gender in Renaissance drama are tied to their original presentation: bearing the traces of their history in a theatrical enterprise which completely excluded women, (these texts) construct gender from a relentlessly androcentric perspective (Helms 196). It is the ways in which these texts reflect or distort the gender expectations of society, either Elizabethan or contemporary, that is so important. Comedy that centers on the relationship between conventional couples ratherRead MoreGender Stereotypes in Othello Essay2033 Words   |  9 Pagesresults in the betrayal and downfall of many of the characters. The inclusion of such a destructive ending is Shakespeare’s dissatisfaction with the cruel and deceptive nature of societal gender stereotypes and the outcomes that they can have. The perspective of dominance as an idealistic trait for men is also instilled in Othello. His dominance displays a possessive nature, as he tends to objectify and idealize Desdemona. As he struggles to cope with the idea that his perfect wife may be committingRead More Gender Roles in Shakespeare Essay1760 Words   |  8 Pagesof gender in Renaissance drama are tied to their original presentation: quot;bearing the traces of their history in a theatrical enterprise which completely excluded women, (these texts) construct gender from a relentlessly androcentric perspectivequot; (Helms 196). It is the ways in which these texts reflect or distort the gender expectations of society, either Elizabethan or contemporary, that is so important. Comedy that centers on the relationship between conventional couples rather

Friday, May 15, 2020

Fraud A Civil Wrong And A Criminal Wrong - 2141 Words

What is a Fraud? A fraud is when one party deceives or takes unfair advantage of another. A fraud includes any act, omission, or concealment, involving a breach of legal or equitable duty or trust, which results in disadvantage or injury to another. In a court of law it is necessary to prove that a false representation was made as a statement of fact that was made with the intent to deceive and to induce the other party to act upon it. It must be proven that the person who has been defrauded suffered an injury or damage from the act. Fraud is considered a civil wrong and a criminal wrong. A civil wrong is when one person commits a wrongful act on another person that harms them physically, financially, or mentally. Criminal wrong is†¦show more content†¦The second issue in my financial fraud paper is issue on the need to strengthen fraud security measures. This is important because of the new regulations such as the SOX or Dodd Frank act people are finding new ways to pull off financial frauds on new unexpected victims. The third financial issue that I have found is the increase in financial frauds against the elderly. Financial fraud is becoming more prevalent in today’s society. Determining what fraud is becoming more prevalent can usually be determined on how the market is or what’s going on in society. One specific case that I found from American Banker website is that phone banking scams has risen thirty percent even after all the new regulations that are in place. The reason for this can be because over the phone people can be anonymous therefore they believe that the likelihood of them getting caught even if the scam gets flagged is low. . Bank fraud has been around for decades but what differs in todays banking fraud is the rise in phone scams in the banking field. In today’s society business and everyday banking needs are being taken care of either over the phone with call centers or with the use of an app. This leaves vulnerability for scams to happen because the employees of the call centers are not fraud experts so they cannot tell when they are being swindled. Using this issueShow MoreRelatedBankruptcy Fraud And Its Effects On The Lower Income Brackets1674 Words   |  7 Pagesas well by using bankruptcy fraud. The average white collar worker has more resources and power to deprive people, especially when it comes to the basic necessities in life. The basic need of having good credit is the dream everyone wants in order to be financially strong. Since the use of bankruptcy fraud has become notorious in today’s society, gaining proper knowledge with regards to the effects and penalties of the crime helps build awareness and deter criminals from victimizing innocent peopleRead MoreThe Ethics Of Health Care Ethics1407 Words   |  6 Pagesword â€Å"Ethics.† Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics is when one knows what is normal between what is right or wrong. For a well-mannered individual, it is easy to think first before you act on something. It is for us to know what our rights are and whether it is right, or wrong, to do or not. We should be responsible of our actions or behaviorRead MoreLaw As An Academic Discipline And Its Different Branches1367 Words   |  6 Pagessystem and uses it as a primary social mediator between people. The field of law encompasses a broad range of academic disciplines including but not limited to criminal law, education law, employment and labor law, international law, civil rights, etc. 2. Explain the relation towards crime The field of law that relates to crime is the Criminal law or penal law. It regulates social conduct and proscribes whatever is threatening, harmful, or endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfareRead MoreHow to Incorporate the Fraud Triangle Theory797 Words   |  4 PagesThe term of â€Å"fraud triangle† was developed by Dr. Donald Cressey, a criminologist who studied embezzlers. The three basic elements of fraud triangle include perceived pressure, perceived opportunity, and the ability to rationalize. It explains the nature of many fraud offenders and also become a tool to assess the risk of fraud. It is important to companies to incorporate the fraud triangle theory in order to reduce the risk of fraud within their organization. From my standpoint, companies shouldRead MoreJustice Systems in Egypt and in the United States Essay680 Words   |  3 PagesVI. Components of Justice System in Egypt VII. Crimes A. United States B. Egypt VIII. Notes IX. References Abstract Justice System in Egypt and the United States are similar in many ways. Egypt Justice System bases its criminal code on British, Napoleon, and Italian models. There are three main categories of crime in Egypt law; they are minor offenses, misdemeanors and felonies. Egypt law requires that a detained person be brought before a magistrate with 48 hours orRead MoreEssay about Texas Gulf Sulphur Case Study690 Words   |  3 PagesGulf Sulphur violate civil or criminal law by breaching a Fiduciary duty or engaging in insider trading: Drake: A geologist and junior member of the exploration group who was authorized with confidential information. Although Stephens made it clear that the information about the Canadian Shield should be kept within the selected group of employees, Drake desecrated a Civil Law, the SecurityRead MoreFraud : A Broad Spectrum Of Individuals At Any Time1238 Words   |  5 PagesFraud can affect a broad spectrum of individuals at any time. Companies and consumers are losing billions of dollars every year. The effects of such deceptions can way heavily on companies and consumers. Fraud can be committed in many different ways. It can range from employee embezzlement to email scams. With increasing frequency, fraud continues to occur. No matter what the news reports, without proper controls; fraud will still occur. Proper controls and training need to be put in place at companiesRead MoreCriminal Law : Criminal Offenses And The Public989 Words   |  4 PagesCriminal Law: Criminal Offenses and the Public Americans commit a variety of criminal acts year after year. These criminal acts are defined differently from state to state. Criminal offenses have been put into two categories, state criminal offenses and federal criminal offenses (Criminal Law Process). Criminal offenses are punishable by a set of rules and regulations, which are also known as criminal laws. Criminal Law According to Melvin 2011, criminal law defines the boundaries of behavior andRead MoreWhistleblowing And Sarbanes Oxley Act945 Words   |  4 Pagesappointment of Ms. Freier as the new marketing and investor relations director. Meanwhile, the founder of Vertical, Graham had been involved in a civil security fraud case that he was negotiating with the S.E.C (Morgenson, 2014). It was a case of his brokerage firm (VCAP) that liquidated five collateral debt obligations in 2012. A case believed to be a fraud as it had confidential information that gave it an unfair advantage over the other bidders. One of the investors wrote a letter to S.E.C seekingRead MoreThe Problem Facing The Small Manufacturing1569 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the ways to prevent fraud in any organization is to eliminate opportunities for fraud. This is done through a â€Å"good system of internal controls, discourage collusion, have a whistle-blowing system in place, create an expectation of punishment, and engage in proactive fraud auditing† (Albrecht, Albrecht, Albrecht and Zimbleman, p 105). In this case, the main problem facing the small manufacturing is the fact that there is no effective internal control system. The internal control system is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Problem of Elitism in Schools and the Workplace

Elitism is the belief in â€Å"concept of superiority: the belief that some people or things are inherently superior to others and deserve preeminence, preferential treatment, or higher rewards because of their superiority.† Academic elitism refers to the idea that in highly competitive academic environments only those individuals who are involved in scholarship are regarded as having worthwhile actions and ideas. Academic elitism proposes that those individuals who do not engage in such acts of scholarship are unimportant. Although, it is possible to value academia and scholarship without being an elitist, the elitist ideal is becoming more and more prevalent in both academic and non-academic sectors. This tendency toward academic elitism is†¦show more content†¦When children who are have higher test scores, â€Å"smart† siblings or just happen to be zoned for a gifted school are placed separate from students who may be less intelligent, can’t test well , or just don’t live in the right neighborhood; and subsequently are removed from the same social and educational circles, elitism is created. Those other students are being rewarded on the basis of being perceived as better. In order to cultivate the intelligence of a few, many are left behind and that is where the academic elitism starts. Other measures that make clear the system’s elitist orientation include the Specialized High School system in which selected top performing schools that are geared toward the academically and artistically gifted, enjoy greater financial and curricular sovereignty, which translates into the school-based development which heightens the prestige of the schools and their students; this family like structure allows for well-established secondary schools like Stuyvesant and junior colleges to provide preferential admission based upon test scores that have more to do with test-prep than natural ability. This is effectively making it more difficult for students from mainstream schools to gain a place of study; and easier for the elite to move forward. â€Å"New York City brags to the world about its excellences†¦..but about one rare treasure, a set ofShow MoreRelatedThe Basic Concepts Of Marxism1460 Words   |  6 Pagescrisis in 2008, the US government had to use taxpayer money in order to bail out big banks and corporations to prevent an economic collapse, despite these large companies chose to gamble at such risks. Many Americans were dissatisfied with financial elitism that governed the American society through economic influences. Karl Marx’s Class antagonism still exists in the present day, but in a different form and scale from antagonism Marx described during his time. Having mentioned Occupy Wall Street, aRead MoreAgeism : An Underestimated Type Of Discrimination1609 Words   |  7 PagesAgeism: An Underestimated Type of Discrimination When the suffix â€Å"-ism† comes to mind, one typically thinks of the more common forms of discrimination throughout society today: racism, sexism, elitism, ableism, ethnocentrism, classism... the list could continue. Ageism, coined by Robert Butler in 1969, however, is one of the many forms of â€Å"isms† that may not be immediately conjured up, or even considered a threat to society at all. It is a fact of life that all living organisms age. I will, you willRead MoreAnalysis Of Keller s The Gospel And Work 1893 Words   |  8 Pagesto address these problems and identify what is the cause and what is the solution. Keller explains the importance of understanding this information because people personally live out their views in their daily lives and work. He points out that the gospel makes our worldview fundamentally different from others in that the gospel understands the nature, problem, and salvation of humankind as a fundamentally relational problem. There is no thing of the world that causes our problems as others may argueRead MoreAffirmative Action Is An Action Or Policy? Essay1774 Words   |  8 Pagessomeone who fought to build a country without prejudice. He organized one of the first civil rights boycotts known in history, and led a massive protest that caught attention from all around the world. Also their faith in human reason to solve social problems, known as rationalism, explain why they feel the need to take these actions in the first place to solve these issues. It also explains why they have faith in the people running our country to step in and take these actions. Education and a good careerRead MoreEssay on Paideia and Modern Educational Policy3842 Words   |  16 Pagesencounter needed to educate students capable of interacting meaningfully in their social and political world. The use of the standard to teach and to measure students carries the authority of the technical and reinforces the stereotype of intellectual elitism. To bring balance to this conflict and create an apolitical design requires attention to the meditative role of the teacher and the nature of learning. There was a fundamental tension embedded in the earliest appropriation of the Greek paideiaRead MoreAnalysis Of Akiko s Developmental Stages And Processes2426 Words   |  10 PagesThe manager is being directive, rather than interactive, rather than interactive, more Ritualism than Ritualization. Ethos Processes: C. Principle of Social Order: Current of Education Tradition She started working at age16 as a part-time after school. Until she left for the U.S, at age 26, she has enculturated to work powerfully. In Japan, coworkers share feelings to improve the weakness together because they consider belonging to a group. On contrast, Americans are individual based; they hideRead MoreEssay on Public vs. Private Education3636 Words   |  15 Pagespublic and private schools. Aspects of equality and achievement in private and public education will be dissected and evaluated. Observations I have evaluated and examined both public and private education instittutional systems. Public Education Public schools are in crisis, and not because of any shortages of public funds (more money is spent on public education than ever before, but with declining results). Many people like to think the problem with our schools is precisely that theyRead MoreBarriers to Intercultural Communication2897 Words   |  12 Pagesemotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the rational or factual aspects of the situation. All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures. Culture is the core concept in diversity. Culture is defined as learned patterns of perceptions, values andRead MoreMahfuz7742 Words   |  31 PagesWestern Electric’s Hawthorne plant in Cicero, Illinois, began in 1924 and ran through 1932; eventually they involved other factories and other companies. The analysis was largely done at Harvard Business School, including outposts such as its Fatigue Lab. (If tired workers were the problem, how to design operations to lessen exhaustion but still achieve maximum output?) The Hawthorne studies were easily the most important social science research ever done on industry. The project is worth unpackingRead MoreYoung People Essay14812 Words   |  60 Pages Childline. 2. Equality, inclusion and anti-discriminatory practice show how you include people and act fairly During and activity in the gym young people disagreed on the activity and it became a little heated. Therefore to solve this problem I asked the young people what they wanted to do. Not all young people asked for the same activity so I offered to split session in two and do one activity for half the session and another activity for the other half. This made sure that all young

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Martha Graham free essay sample

Yes, I would do that. I had found my fate. †(Hari 70) Daoud Hari is a man that travels in and out of Darfur many, many times putting himself at risk. He was willing to risk his own life while many others think only of themselves. Bravery is not something many people are born with. Some people may obtain it and some do not. Martha Graham is one of the people that did obtain bravery, and it was a very strong bravery that is very rare to find. â€Å"Martha Graham’s dancing and choreography exposed the depths of human emotion through movements that were sharp, angular, jagged, and direct. (â€Å"Martha Graham Dancer’s Journal†) Martha Graham experimented with many different movements and many different ways so her dancing was very different from the dance movement people were most comfortable with. Many people criticized her and told her that her work was too out of the ordinary. â€Å"If Graham ever gave birth,† one critic equipped, â€Å"it would be to a cube. † (â€Å"The Dancer†) No matter what critics said, she kept going. Martha Graham was an innovative and focused individual. Her love of dance was so intense she refused to leave the stage when critic’s said she was too old.That’s the type of bravery people need, the bravery to keep doing something that one believes in when the majority is against them. Daoud Hari’s bravery is similar to Martha Graham’s. Daoud Hari had to learn to accept what might happen to him if he kept returning to Darfur. Sometimes it is difficult to accept the fate, but Daoud Hari was willing to accept the possibility of death if it meant he could change the way people viewed Darfur. â€Å"No single group held the territory. There was no one to call for permission to come through. This is when it is most dangerous to travel. † (Hari 122) Daoud Hari always had to get where he needed to be.No matter what the circumstances were at the time, he provided as much information as possible to the reporters traveling with him to get the word out about Darfur. Armed with his ability to speak Zaghawa, Arabic, and English he was able to translate for the news and aid organizations. Even though the government of Sudan had outlawed journalists to the region, Daoud Hari risked the possibility of capture and even death. This is complete bravery- to accept something that could happen any moment of any day at any time. Heroes need to have trust in themselves. Martha Graham always had trust in herself no matter what she did.Most of her works she created were based on a historical or emotional feeling. â€Å"There are always ancestral footsteps behind me, pushing me, when I am creating a new dance, and gestures are flowing through me. Whether good or bad, they are ancestral. † (Yaari) The dances with a historic background behind them were called the Greek cycle. These dances were the ones that officially made her famous. The movements in them were so empowering people were shocked after experiencing them. The reason people liked them was because they related so much to how harsh history had been to society in the past and how it might be in the future.Serious issues such as the Great Depression and the Spanish Civil War were brought to the stage along with the dark emotions experienced by all. If she had never followed her brain, heart, or spirit then none of these dances would have come alive. Trusting in herself was a key factor in the making of many of her works. Martha Graham, much like Daoud Hari, had to find a way to believe in herself and take dance to the next level whether based on her gut feeling or her spirit regardless of what people thought of her. Daoud Hari always followed his gut.Whenever he saw people in pain, he would trust his gut and try and help the people in need no matter who they were or what they believed in. â€Å"The commander ordered a soldier to go get him some food, but I said that he must not eat our kind of food, that someone must go into town and get him an American-style sandwich that a white man could eat, and a coke or Pepsi. There was an argument about the cost of this, but I assured the commander that our food would kill this man, and I truly believed that he was not strong enough for anything but his own food. (Hari 160) Daoud Hari is one of the few in the world that could actually tell a guard to go get another prisoner food because the prisoner looked like he was about to die. Trusting his gut that the guard would do it is about 99% of the battle that he had to face. It was not getting the prisoners food; it was standing up to the guard and saying that he will die if he does not have an American- s tyle meal. Martha Graham and Daoud Hari are both heroes in their own way. They both have confidence, bravery, and trust in themselves, which are the necessary traits that a hero needs to be a true hero.In the world there are people who see bad things being done to people and do not do anything about it and there are people who do something about the bad things being done. This is essential because Daoud Hari and Martha Graham both helped the people that needed to be helped. Martha Graham helped dancers develop a new style that they might like better than ballet, providing a wider spectrum to choose from. Daoud Hari helped numerous news reporters get into Darfur and get back out safely with what they wanted and what they needed to know about what is happening in Darfur.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Robin Lee Essays (253 words) - Biotechnology, Preventive Medicine

Robin Lee Ms. Kayla Murphy English 9 Sept 21, 2015 Vaccinating Kid Should Be a Parental Choice Life is important and as everybody knows, preventing people from deadly illnesses is also very important. It is strange that some people don ' t believe that vaccinations are effective. Despite years of scientific research and testing, people still choose to be ignorant and hard-headed. Vaccinations should not be a topic of debate because vaccines available have been tested and proven that they are effective. If vaccines weren ' t prove, doctors weren ' t be able to use vaccines but it has been approved by government and CDC so people should have faith to the government, CDC, and to the doctors. There are many different kinds of illness threatening the lives of people. Prevention is always better than to get something unexpected without preventing. When treating illnesses, it costs a lot of money and time to treat it. Vaccinations can not only prevent from illnesses but it also takes a little time and money. I think that getting vaccinations on their children means that they love their children and don ' t want them to become sick. But, when I see people who disagree with getting vaccinations on their children, it means that they don ' t really care about suffering their child from illness when they get the illness. Some parents don ' t think about how much money, time and suffering their children would have after having an illness.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Essay Example

Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Essay Example Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Paper Drink Tap Water instead of Bottled Water Paper Water is one of the most important natural resources in the world and it’s the major constituents of living matter where it serves different functions. This unique natural resources is very important to mankind in the sense that our existence depend largely on it availability. As important as this compound of hydrogen and oxygen may seem to us, its quality also matters to our existence. Water comes in different forms so as its usage. There are several means by which water can be supplied to various homes and industry for various purposes. One major way by which this supply is being achieved is via pumping of water to the consumer through a faucet known as tap, hence the term â€Å"tap water†. Other means by which water for consumption are supplied to the consumers is via bottled water, sachet waters, and water in large containers. TAP AND BOTTLED WATER Several benefits can be derived from each means of supply but tap water still remains the best sources of water supply for safe consumption and other domestic use even though there are several beliefs in regards to the use of bottled water as the best source of water for consumption (Wald et al, 2008). Researches has shown that dangers of using bottled water as major sources of water consumption outweighs its benefits, hence there is a need to enlighten the populace on why we ought to choose tap water over bottled water as a major sources of water for our consumption. Several environmental issues must also be considered in regards to our choice between tap and bottled water. WHY CHOOSE TAP WATER There are several benefits that are associated with the use of tap water compare to bottled water, this will be discuss under the following subheadings; health, economic and environmental aspects Health aspects A question we ought to ask ourselves before purchasing some bottled water is that â€Å"why should I pay more for a product whose quality is worse than water that flows from the faucet of my house†. Although the answer to the question might not be pointed to us immediately probably because we’ve not fall victim or experience the menace of health problems associated with bottled water, there is a need for us to know that this is no more a fiction but a reality. There is a lot of health issues accompanying the use of bottled and tap water 1. Tap water contains chlorine which is antimicrobial in nature; hence helps eliminate bacteria that may be in the water. Tap water is always tested for presence of microorganism which can cause gastrointestinal problems before being diseminated. Bottled water doesn’t contain chlorine hence a higher load of bacteria and the manufacturer don’t usually test for the presence of microorganism that cause gastrointestinal diseases. 2. There are guidelines that monitor the presence of Escherichia coli bacteria while there are no such guidelines in the FDA standards that check this in bottled water, hence a higher probability of developing the disease whenever it’s present in the bottled water. Purity and safety standards in regards to bottled water production and distribution is less stringent compare to that of the tap water simply because standard check is not always done on the products before it being distributed but this is not so in the case of tap water where it must be check against the standard before any distribution 3. Tap water must meet some health standards such as the absence of important toxic or carcinogenic chemicals or substance such as phthalate but this is not so in bottled water. This chemical has been found to have potential to leak from the plastics container used in bottled hence a higher risk of developing cancer later in life due to the accumulation of the chemical in the body. 4. Fluoridation of tap water can easily be done to provide people especially children with regulated amount of fluoride which helps in bone and teeth development. This also prevent against some dental disease such as dental caries because of the effect of the fluoride in teeth mineralisation. Bottled water is not fluoridated hence people that consume it are more prone to development of dental caries 5. Tap water contains other minerals which have been found to be very important for our growth. These minerals are also absorb from the gastrointestinal tract easily compare those from the food. The most important minerals found in Tap water are iodine, magnesium, chlorides and bicarbonates, iron and sulphates. Magnesium is best known to be an important element that helps maintain our immune system, ease tension within the muscles and helps lowered blood pressure. Chlorides and bicarbonates apart from being antibacterial in nature also aids digestive processes and helps keep our pH level within the normal range. Iron is very important to us, simply because it helps in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body while sulphate helps us to detoxify all ingested toxic substances. Iodine is one of the most important of all the elements simply because it helps prevent goitre and also aid thyroid function in the elderly. Environmental aspects There are several environmental issues surrounding the use of bottled water compare to tap water in recent times. One of the most important environmental issues in this regards is the issues of waste. Bottled water has been found to create unnecessary waste in form of empty plastic bottles, though these bottles can be recycled majority of them don’t eventually get recycled. Bottles used in bottled water are made from petroleum by-products, the inability to recycle most of them eventually lead to extreme or higher production rate from the petroleum resources ultimately leading to excessive rate of depletion of these non renewable natural resources. Bottled water also does not degrade easily creating a lot of space and landfill. Burning of these plastic used in bottled water will results in the release of petrochemicals substances which are dangerous to our health and are also responsible for the rapid depletion of the protective ozone layer, hence an increase greenhouse effect and global warming. The use of tap water will help reduce all these hazards associated with the disposal of bottled water and also help balance the ecosystem. Tap water can also help protect against the effect of fire outbreak when we make use of it in our community. The use of Tap water as a form of protection from fire outbreak has been considered to be one of the primary aims of water supply systems (CDC, 2007). This is because the system in which the water is being supplied through the faucet provides sufficient volume of water at high pressure which is one of the properties that gives it the ability to quench fire. Overall effect of environmental influence of bottled water is that it affects our planet negatively and do us harm. Economic aspect The increase use of Tap water will provide support for our economy simply because business or housing developments usually do not succeed without a safe and sustainable source of water supply. Considering the enormous potential benefits associated with the use of Tap water, it is critical to businesses’ day to day operations and activities. Most entrepreneur and employers usually consider the availability and the quality of water supply in a particular region before construction of their business construction of the company or facilities. It is also the main supply of water during the period of drought and even to those communities in the arid areas. Bottled water is always expensive and can even be considered to be for individuals in the middle and the upper strata in the society. The use of Tap water helps saves cost purchasing bottled water. Considering the economic cost associated with the use of bottled water, it can never be used for other purposes in which we use Tap water for such as washing of clothes, watering our lawns, and some other purposes in which we use water for. Tap water can also be consider one of the most important basic social amenity must have to be considered as a developed or developing community in the sense that it help reduce mortality rates, provide economic diversity, and increase productivity in the areas of industrialization and agriculture Conclusion Considering the health benefits, the economical and the environmental aspect of Tap water, it is very important that the use of Tap water is very important to our public health protection and quality of life. Bottled water offers no special benefits than tap water, then why should we pay more for something that put us at higher risk than the water flowing out of the faucets in our various homes. References Belew, B. (2009). â€Å"The truth-tap water is better than bottled water and better for the environment†. Greenpacks. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from greenpacks. org/2009/07/22/the-truth-tap-water-is-better-than-bottled-water-and-better-for-the-environment/ CDC, (2007). â€Å"Health on Tap: the value of Tap water†. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from www. cdc. gov Petersen, B. (2003). â€Å"Iodine containing macromolecules in tap water and their importance for iodine intake and thyroid dysfunctions†. Projekt. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://vbn. aau. dk/research/iodine_containing_macromolecules_in_tap_water_and_their_importance_for_iodine_intake_and_thyroid_dysfunctions(15671)/ Owen, J. (2006). â€Å"Bottled Water Isnt Healthier Than Tap, Report Reveals†. National geographic news. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2006/02/0224_060224_bottled_water. html Wald et al, (2008). â€Å"Health belief about bottled water: a qualitative study†. BMC Public health. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from biomedcentral. com/1471-2458/9/196 Water Quality Association (2009). â€Å"The bottled water dilemma†. Aqua Purity Plus Retrieved August 3, 2009 from aquapurityplus. com/water_dilemma. pdf

Monday, February 24, 2020

Efficiency of Foreign Exchange Market Coursework

Efficiency of Foreign Exchange Market - Coursework Example In efficient markets, there are opportunities neither for the hedgers nor for the speculators to make super-normal profits (Fama, 1970). In such a situation, speculative efficiency and arbitraging efficiency exist. The speculative efficiency hypothesis is the proposition that says if there is speculative efficiency in the market, the expected rate of return to due speculation in the forward foreign exchange market is zero (Hansen and Hodrick, 1980). The arbitraging efficiency hypothesis is the proposition that the expected rate of return to covered or uncovered interest arbitrage in the international capital market is zero. Interest arbitrage is a form of arbitrage where funds are taken out of home country to invest in a foreign country’s interest bearing securities. This strategy tries to make profit from the difference in interest rate of the two countries. Interest arbitrage is a central concept to understand the foreign exchange movements. Literature Review For testing the speculative efficiency of any foreign exchange market, many academicians consider the hypothesis that the forward price is the best forecast available of future spot price. For the test of arbitraging efficiency, several authors test covered interest parity (CIP), i.e. the parity between the forward discount from the expected spot and the interest differential between a pair of currencies. Since transactions costs and risk premium are there in the price, now it has become a widely known fact that, rejecting the CIP test doesn’t necessarily imply that the market is arbitraging inefficient. In the context of a simple forward market model it can be shown that arbitraging efficiency can exist even if CIP does not hold and transactions costs and risk premium are absent (Stein, 1965). In reality, prices include transaction costs and there is a presence of risk premium for the risk taken by taking position on that particular asset. Since transactions costs and risk premium exist in practice (Bilson, 1981); a departure from CIP does not necessarily imply arbitraging inefficiency. With transactions costs and risk premium, it can be shown that the null hypothesis for testing CIP differs from that for testing arbitraging efficiency. Frequent failures of the tests of market efficiency as the forward discount deviates from either the interest differential or expected depreciation; have led researchers to postulate the existence of a risk premium. There have been also a lot of cases of large difference of average holding returns across asset classes. Moreover the risk premium has been time dependent (Grauer et al, 1976). Researchers have often tested for a risk premium as a function of the variance of forecast errors or of the exchange rate movements (Domowitz and Hakkio, 1985). A usual initiative for researchers while testing for speculative efficiency is that they take for granted that speculators are risk neutral. Empirical studies for a large variety of currenci es and time periods and for the recent floating experience tend to report results which are unfavorable to the efficient market hypothesis under risk neutrality (Longworth, 1981; Fama, 1984). For the period 1973 to 1979, Hansen and Hodrick (1980), using weekly data and three-month forward rates and carrying out tests involving the currencies of seven countries which are Canada, France, Italy,